HB 2281 (2010- ), also known as A.R.S. §15–112, is a law in the American state of Arizona that bans ethnic studies which do any of the following:
- Promote the overthrow of U.S. government
- Promote resentment toward any race or class
- Advocate ethnic solidarity instead of being individuals
- Are designed for a certain ethnicity
- Native American classes to comply with federal law
- Grouping of classes based on academic performance
- Classes about the history of an ethnic group open to all students
- Classes discussing controversial history
It applies only to public and charter schools, not to universities or private schools.
The law was designed by White Republican Tom Horne for just one purpose: to shut down Mexican American Studies (MAS) at Tucson Unified School District. Nothing else.
Even though an independent state audit found that MAS did not break the law, Judge Lewis D. Kowal ruled that it did.
The Modern Language Association:
Allowing state officials to declare legitimate branches of history and culture out of bounds – to the point of seizing and sequestering books – is inimical to the principles on which the United States was founded.
Two students are challenging the law in court as unconstitutional.
- Location: 115 km from Mexico
- Demographics: “minority-majority”:
- 47% Anglo
- 42% Latino
- 5% Black
- 3% Native
- 3% Asian
- Public schools: 62% Latino – many whites go to private or charter schools.
- Ethnic studies programmes:
- African American
- Native American
- Mexican American
- English and Social Studies (de facto White American Studies)
- Extremely important fact: Half of Latinos drop out of high school.
The state audit found that while MAS did have something of an activist edge, it was not teaching resentment of other races or the overthrow of the government or anything like that. It was open to all students and not just meant for Latinos.
Closing the achievement gap: John Pedicone, the head of the Tucson school district, said that Latino students in MAS scored higher on state tests, were twice as likely to graduate high school and three times more likely to go to university.
But Tom Horne knows better: He said MAS must be stopped because it was spreading anger and despair among Latinos by teaching them that they are oppressed by whites!
- Father of HB 2281
- Was Arizona’s head of public schools, 2003-2011
- Is state attorney general, 2011-present
- Marched with Martin Luther King, Jr
- Foundational belief: MLK Quote here>
- George Bush/Kanye West Moment: In 2006 Delores Huerta told Tucson high school students: “Republicans hate Latinos.”
- Suffers from: MID (Massive Irony Deficiency)
MAS teaches history through a Chicano lens. Instead of going back to the Greeks like Eurocentric history, it goes back to the Mayans. Chicanos (Mexican Americans) did not come from England on the Mayflower: their roots in North America and even in Arizona go back thousands of years. White American rule is just the latest chapter, not The Natural Order of the Universe.
- Books banned from Tucson classrooms – more on those banned books
- Tom Horne
- Arizona SB 1070 – an Arizona law passed at the same time which allows the police to stop anyone and ask for their papers.
- History in Texas schoolbooks – The Republicans there believe in brainwashing too
- Why American history gets whitewashed – well, all right, it is not just Republicans
- Reading Beverly Tatum – some of the psychology about growing up as a person of colour in America
- Cheikh Anta Diop