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English Americans

qpple-pie

apple pie, an English American contribution to US culture.

lee-harvey-oswald-top

Lee Harvey Oswald, a famous English American who changed history.

English Americans (1607- ) are people who live in the US who came from England. They gave the US its laws, language and mainstream culture. They pretty much ran the country till at least the 1960s.

They are the unhyphenated Americans. Sometimes they are called Wasps, “White Anglo-Saxon Protestants”, a word mainly applied to well-to-do White Protestants of any northern European background.

1500s: Out of the cognitive dissonance of England leaving the Catholic Church, the English come to feel they are better than everyone else, partly because of their Anglo-Saxon cultural roots. Anglo-Saxonism is born. It makes it hard for them to deal with others as equals. They see the Irish (and later Native Americans and Africans) as savages.

1600s and early 1700s: England uses North America as a dumping ground for convicts, sturdy beggars, “excess poor”, religious fanatics and so on.

The first four waves from England:

  • 1629 to 1640: From East Anglia to New England. Heavily Puritan.
  • 1640 to 1675: From southern England to what will become the southern US.
  • 1675 to 1725: From the North Midlands to Pennsylvania. Heavily Quaker.
  • 1717 to 1775: From Northumbria (and Scotland and northern Ireland) to Appalachia.

These four English subcultures spread across North America, wiping out Native Americans. They will mix and create three new subcultures:

  • Greater New York, part Dutch, part Jewish.
  • The Great Basin, centred on Utah. Heavily Mormon.
  • Southern California, part Mexican, part Jewish. Spreads across the south-west.

Nearly all non-English Whites will assimilate into one of these seven Anglo-Protestant subcultures to become “American”, meaning White American.

By 1780, because of the cognitive dissonance of having African slaves, Anglo-Saxonism becomes racialized.

In 1851, Ralph Waldo Emerson, a famous English American writer, said:

“The German & Irish nations, like the Negro, have a deal of guano in their destiny. They are ferried over the Atlantic, & carted over America to ditch & to drudge, to make the land fertile, & corn cheap, & then to lie down prematurely to make the grass a spot of greener grass on the prairie.”

After 1865, with the South broken by the Civil War, northern Wasps fill the top levels of US society – in government, the military, big business, banks, universities, museums, the arts and so on.

By 1900, the racial model of the US looks like this:

  1. English Americans
  2. Other northern Europeans
  3. Other Europeans
  4. Blacks

Native, Latino and Asian Americans do not even make the list.

In the early 1900s, English Americans are the driving force behind:

  • the Klan – protecting Anglo-Saxon civilization from Blacks, Jews and Catholics.
  • prohibition – directed against German beer, Italian wine and Irish whisky.
  • eugenics and immigration law – keeping the US racially Nordic (northern European).
  • Americanization – remaking the non-English in the Wasp image.

In the 1930s, this world starts to come undone: the anti-northern-Wasp vote is now big enough to bring pro-White, not pro-Wasp, governments to power. This leads to the Third Enlargement of Whiteness (1930-1980), where the top three layers of the 1900 race model become one.

By the 2010s, according to Amy Chua, Wasps have lost their superiority complex.

See also:

james-holmes

James Holmes, the Batman shooter.

Disclaimer: This is parody.

White is right! Therefore, to know how to think about White people, copy how they think about Blacks, “Muslims” and others:

1. All White people are the same. They are not individuals. They have a hive mind. That means you can judge them from the worst among them, like rapists, terrorists, psychopathic killers or Fox News hosts. It shows what they are like deep down, what everyone of them is capable of. Beware! Sure, Edison invented the light bulb and Mother Teresa helped the poor, but they are the exception.

2. Never give Whites the benefit of the doubt. Until you know otherwise – and maybe not even then – assume each one lacks morals, brains, education, money and might be up to no good. For all you know, they might be a meth head or a psychopathic killer! If you see one coming, you might want to cross the street. Or clutch your pearls. Just to be on the safe side. It works! They will never notice.

3. Confirmation bias. If anything fits your preconceived ideas about Whites, it counts as a “fact” which “proves” it. Remember, always let your conclusions determine what counts as fact. So long as you stick to the facts, there is no way you can be racist.

4. Twist statistics. If the numbers still do not fit your preconceived ideas, then twist some more. If all else fails, just say, “You can prove anything with statistics!”

5. Correlation is cause. If a high rate of anything bad is found among White Americans as compared to, say, Asian Americans, like meth use or out-of-wedlock births, then it has to be because they are White. What else could it be?

6. Decontextualize violence. If Whites are violent, it is because they are White. No other reason.

7. Avoid Whites. Do not make friends with more than one of them, if that. Avoid their neighbourhoods. Do not read their books or listen to their current music. Unless it is an action film, do not watch any show with an all-White cast. Those are meant just for White people and require a deep understanding of the White culture.

8. Do not learn White history. Anything that took place more than 30 years ago has absolutely no effect on the present. Ask any historian.

9. Lack empathy. Never put yourself in their shoes. What would be the point of that? It is impossible to have any understanding of what it feels like to be White.

10. Be ethnocentric. Judge their culture according to your own. If they do not value religion, family, marriage, modest dress, good food or education as much as your own, then there must be something wrong with them. If they do not speak your language or dialect perfectly, then it shows they lack intelligence. Look down on them – or fear them – for not having grown up in your culture, for not being just like you.

Thanks to commenter Just Me for inspiring this post.

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Angles

britain-in-600The Angles (c. 98-880) are the Anglo in Anglo-Saxon, the a in Wasp and the Eng in English and England. They were one of the Germani peoples who took over parts of Britain as the western Roman Empire fell apart in the 400s.

Their language became the Anglian dialect of Old English, which in turn became the English of northern England and the northern US.

Their main gods – Woden, Thor and Tiw – became days of the week in English: Wednesday, Thursday and Tuesday. Friday and Easter in English are named for two of their goddesses.

In 98, the Roman historian Tacitus became the first to write about them. He said they were pretty much like most other Germani except that they worshipped Nerthus, Mother Earth. They worshipped her on an island in the Ocean. Her holy cart was washed by slaves – who were then drowned.

The Angles back then lived “behind their ramparts of rivers and woods” – in a part of Germany just south of Denmark, in a place still called Angeln. It is not far from where “Beowulf”, their most famous story, takes place.

In 410, Rome pulled its legions out of Britain to defend the empire closer to home.

anglo-saxon_map

In the 400s and 500s the Angles, along with Saxons, Jutes, and probably some Franks and Frisians too, took over eastern Britain. Angles settled in the north, Saxons and Jutes in the south.

Romanized Celts, the people who were already living in Britain, either fled west or fell under what they called “Saxon” rule. There was fighting and the burning of some towns.

The old Roman towns became shells. Anglian life centred not on towns but tons – as in “Kingston”. They were important houses that owned huge pieces of land given by a king and worked mostly by slaves. Many monasteries, when they began to appear in the 600s, followed the same pattern and were called minsters – as in “Westminster”. By the 700s came the wich, as in “Norwich”. They were trading settlements.

heptarchy_by_c00lfr0g-d6dcfp2

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A silver penny of King Offa, who ruled Mercia and much else in the late 700s

By 600, there were seven main Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Three were Anglian: Mercia, in the middle of Britain, East Anglia to the east and Northumbria to the north. The main Saxon kingdom was Wessex, in the south. There was also Essex, Sussex and Kent in the south-east.

In the 600s, Christianity returned to eastern Britain – from the north from Ireland and from the south from Rome. Missionaries had begun arriving in the late 500s. With them came reading and writing (the Roman alphabet) and Western culture. The Church brought some of the old Roman towns back to life.

ialcuin001p1

Alcuin in a picture drawn in the 800s.

In the 700s the Angles produced one of the greatest minds of western Europe of the time – Alcuin (735?-804), who helped lead Charlemagne’s rebirth of learning.

In the 800s the Danes (Vikings) destroyed all three Anglian kingdoms.

In about 880, in the Treaty of Wedmore with the Danes, the word “English” appears in English for the first time to mean not the Angles but the Angles and Saxons together as one people – the English.

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Prince George’s County

PG Plaza metro

m-14northBrentwood_1318033260

PG county home

PG County home kitchen

A guest post by Jefe:

Prince George’s County, Maryland (“PG”) is the wealthiest US county with a black majority (66%). It is at the northern edge of the “Black Belt” and just to the east of Washington, DC. It is home to the US Census Bureau, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Andrews Air Force Base and  the University of Maryland.

washington-DC-metro-area

Before the 1600s, it was home to two Algonquian speaking peoples: the Nacochtank (now extinct) and the Piscataway. Descendants of the Piscataway mixed with free people of colour to form communities of tri-racial isolates, similar to the Melungeons.  The Piscataway have obtained tribal recognition by the State of Maryland.

In 1696 PG became a county in the colony of Maryland.

In 1791 it ceded part of its land to the Federal Government to form the District of Columbia.

By the 1850s, blacks formed a majority. Many worked as slaves on tobacco plantations.

After the Civil War, Jim Crow laws, although less severe than in the Deep South, were applied together with practices common in the North (eg, restrictive covenants) to enforce strict segregation.

During the Great Migration, blacks poured into DC. By the 1950s, blockbusting and white flight had made DC the first large US city with a black majority. Many whites fled to PG county, making it 85% white by 1970 and larger than DC itself.  Neighborhoods and schools remained highly segregated.

In 1973, the Maryland Supreme Court ruled against the county for failing to desegregate. PG became the nation’s largest school system ever subject to mandatory desegregation by busing. White parents placed their kids into hastily established segregation academies. Middle class blacks started moving in, reaching a majority around 1990. Segregated white neighborhoods are no longer found in PG and mandatory school busing ceased in 2001. By 2012, the school system was about 80% black, 11% Hispanic and 5% white. In Maryland, only Baltimore has a worse performing school system.

In the 1990s, PG led the nation in police-induced fatalities. Victims were overwhelmingly black and nearly half were unarmed. Despite electing a black county executive in 1994, the situation did not improve until after a US Department of Justice probe in 2000. Its crime rate is still the worst among metro DC jurisdictions.

By 2012, DC had lost its black majority, due to gentrification, pushing poor blacks into PG county and elsewhere. Poor black ghettos have formed in inner Beltway areas that used to be all white decades earlier. Ex-DC mayor and Ward 8 councilman Marion Barry Jr often referred to PG county as “Ward 9”.

washington-dc--white-people-have-gentrified-much-of-downtown-dc-pushing-black-people-to-outer-southeast-northeast-anacostia-and-the-maryland-suburbs

Metro DC in 2010: The red dots are white people, blue dots are black people,  orange is Hispanic, green is Asian, and yellow is other. PG county is on the right.

 

Five of the nation’s top ten wealthiest black-majority communities are in PG. Some of this affluence can be attributed to the affirmative action policies of the Federal and DC Government after 1970 and to the general attraction of highly educated blacks to the area. However, PG is still the poorest county in the DC metro area, the nation’s wealthiest.

Private corporations and think tanks shun PG despite its proximity to DC and the presence of one of the nation’s largest research universities.

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Further Reading:

Germani

SONY DSC

Germani is the name Romans gave to the people in the land north of the western Roman Empire. They spoke Proto-Germanic, a language that later became German, Dutch, English and so on.

1st-pg.-of-Germania-tacitus_germania_aesinasThis post follows the description made by Roman historian Tacitus in the year 98 in his book “Germania”.

Their land of Germania had “unlovely scenery”, a “bitter climate”, and was “dreary to inhabit and even to behold”. There were no cities. It was a land of woods and marshes that stretched all the way north to a land of twilight, near where the world of nature ends.

The Germani had “wild blue eyes, reddish hair and huge frames that excel only in violent effort.” They could bear cold and hunger, but not hard work, thirst or heat.

They lived in houses built not of brick or stone, but of “unworked wood, both unimpressive and unattractive.” They left space between houses, either because they were not able to build houses right next to each other like the Romans or because they were afraid of fires spreading.

Their clothes were tight-fitting, not loose and flowing.

They had fields of grain and herds of livestock. Livestock was their main form of wealth. Only those who lived near the Roman Empire grew to have a taste for silver and gold. They did not know about charging interest on money.

They chose their kings from among the nobles, their war leaders from among the brave.

Fylfot22The Germani road to wealth and power was war.

When a Germani boy came of age he was given a spear and a shield. Few had swords or lances. Courage in battle was highly prized. To throw away one’s shield was the deepest disgrace.

Drinking: When not fighting, Germani men pigged out, drank beer and slept, leaving the work to women, old men and those unfit for war. Drinking away the day was not considered a disgrace. They had no self-control in drinking. It often led to violent fights.

Gambling: They loved dice games, which they took so seriously that sometimes they bet away their freedom, becoming slaves.

Marriage: Unlike most barbarians, they had only one wife. They did not see sex outside of marriage as “up-to-date”. Wives loved not so much their husbands as the married state.

Children were dirty and naked, but grew up to be big and strong.

Slaves were rarely punished. They were more like tenant farmers.

Religion: Germani worshipped Mercury, Hercules and Mars (most likely Tacitus means Woden, Thor and Tiw). They did not make images of their gods or build temples. Instead they worshipped in sacred woods. Human sacrifice (pictured below) was not unheard of.

The English (Anglii) were “nothing noteworthy” except that they worshipped Nerthus, Mother Earth.

The Swedes (Suiones) were “strong not only in arms and men but also in fleets.” Their ships had a prow at both ends. They held wealth in high honour and lived on an island in the Ocean at the end of the world.

bog_feature

Tollund Man, a human sacrifice from circa -300, preserved in a peat bog in Denmark for over 2,000 years.

 

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The Proto-Indo-Europeans

© 2005 Jerry Lodriguss / www.astropix.com ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The Proto-Indo-Europeans (before 4000 BC), formerly known as Aryans, are the people who spoke Proto-Indo-European, a language that broke apart and gave rise to most of the languages from Bangladesh to Iceland, like English, Latin, Sanskrit and Persian. Half the world now speaks an Indo-European language.

Indo-European-Language-Family-Map

By comparing words from these languages, scholars have worked backwards, reconstructing over 2,000 words of Proto-Indo-European, giving us a window on their world.

Proto-Indo-Europeans had words for:

  • technology: plough, axe, hoe, rake, hook, cup, comb.
    • transport: wagon, wheel, axle, shaft, yoke, reins, boat, oar.
    • weapons: spear, shield.
    • material: wood, wool, copper, gold, silver.
  • work: harvest, sow, grind, spin, weave, hunt.
  • colour words: black, white, red, yellow and maybe *modheros (blue and green as one colour).
  • numbers: 1 to 100.
  • seasons: winter, spring, summer, autumn.
  • trees: beech, apple, alder, ash, birch, elm, fir, pine, hawthorn, maple, blackberry, willow, yew, poplar.
  • animals: hare, squirrel, beaver, mouse, fox, wolf, dog, red deer (Cervus elaphus), moose (Alces alces), auroch.
    • birds: crane, crow, cuckoo, duck, eagle, goose, jay, owl, sparrow, stork, woodpecker.
    • fish: salmon (Salmo trutta), trout.
    • livestock: cow, ox, pig, goat, sheep, horse.
  • crops: wheat, barley, rye, oats.
  • food and drink: meat, mead, beer, honey, salt, milk, buttermilk, broth.
  • places: hearth, room, house, village, fort, field, border. Their houses were rectangular and made of wood. They lived in forts on top of hills.
  • society: king, priest, servant, freeman, mistress, herdsman, craftsman, fighter.
  • religion: pray, sacrifice, holy, curse.
  • gods: the names Jupiter, Neptune, Aurora, Vulcan, the “Danu” in Danube.
  • other beings: phantom, the First Man.
  • constellations: the Bear (Ursa Major, the Big Dipper, pictured at top), the Three Stars.
  • phrases: “weaver of words”, “imperishable fame”, “holy force”, “Protect, keep safe, man and cattle”.

Tomb of the Infernal Four-Horses Chariot, Etruscan necropolis of Pianacce, 4th century BC.

Mythology: Scholars can also reconstruct some of the old stories they told:

  • Creation: The world grew out of the body of a dead giant: his hair became grass, his eyes the sun, his mind the moon and his breath the wind.
  • Hero and Serpent: The hero kills a huge, three-headed snake (pictured above).
  • Virgin and King: A virgin saves the king.
  • The Last Battle: the present world – or a past golden age – ends in a huge battle.

IE_homeland_proposals_map

The homeland question has been debated for over 200 years. The three main answers have been:

Anatolia F1.medium

1. South of the Black Sea in -7000: Most of the world’s big language families seem to have been spread by farming. Farming spread to Europe from what is now Turkey in the -6000s. If you apply the same statistical modelling to word change that geneticists apply to gene change, you find that Proto-Indo-European started to break apart in Turkey in -6700.

IE_expansion

2. North of the Black Sea in -4000: The Kurgan people are currently the closest archaeological fit. Proto-Indo-Europeans knew about wheels and carts, which do not appear in the archaeological record till -3500, in nearby Poland and the Caucasus.

Corded_Ware_culture

3. Northern Europe in -2500: Taking “beech” and “salmon” to mean the German sort, some argued for the Nordic Corded Ware culture. This is now discredited, but it led to Hitler’s racist Aryanism. It still affects how Greek history is understood (the Aryan model).

Sources: Mainly:

  • “The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World” (2006) by J.P. Mallory and D.Q. Adams;
  • “The American Heritage Dictionary of Indo-European Roots” (2011) by Calvert Watkins;
  • “Before the Dawn” (2006) by Nicholas Wade;
  • “1001 Inventions That Changed the World” (2009), Jack Challoner, general editor;
  • “Archaeology & Language” (1987) by Colin Renfrew;
  • “The Horse, the Wheel and Language” (2007) by David W. Anthony.
atkinson-gray

Atkinson & Grey’s family tree of Indo-European languages, based on the same statistical modelling that geneticists use.

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segregation academies

Marshall Academy Pee Wee football team (Holly Springs, MS)

The football team of Marshall Academy in Holly Springs, Mississippi. The town is 79% black.

A guest post by Jefe:

Segregation academies (1955 – ) were set up by whites after Brown v. Board (1954) to circumvent desegregation. They proliferated in the 1960s-1970s in response to court desegregation orders. By the 1990s, following white flight and residential resegregation, many either shut down or were compelled to admit non-white students. Today, they remain a bastion of the “Black Belt”, particularly the Mississippi delta.

White officials in districts with segregation academies severely restrict funding to the public schools, which become overwhelmingly black.

Few jurisdictions voluntarily desegregated schools after Brown v. Board. Housing segregation created by restrictive covenants, kept in place by blockbusting and racial steering, led to racially gerrymandered school districts. That was easier in places which had more than one school each for blacks and whites, but difficult in sparsely populated rural districts which did not lend easily to white flight.

prince edward county students

Prince Edward County, Virginia, a rural county between Richmond and Charlottesville, took extreme measures. In 1959, it halted funding for public education, effectively shutting down all its public schools. White parents opened the Prince Edward Academy, leaving blacks with no school to attend. The U.S. Supreme Court ordered the county to reopen their public schools in 1963, which they appealed. In 1964, the order was upheld, but the Academy persisted with minimal funding for public schools. In 1978, the Academy lost its tax status, but did not admit non-white students until 1986.

Prince George’s County, Maryland grew rapidly in the 1950s-1970s after white flight from Washington, DC. In 1973, its school system was 80% white, but black students attended schools over 90% black. In 1974, it became the largest school system in the USA ever subject to mandatory desegregation by bussing. Middle class blacks kept moving to the county, becoming the majority by the 1990s. Academies had to accept non-whites just to stay in business. They are now more racially diverse than the public schools, which are 80% black. Bussing ended in 2001 since students were merely being bussed from one black-majority school to another.

Boston, Massachusetts witnessed some of the most violent protests against mandatory school desegregation in the mid 1970s, but avoided segregation academies via white flight. The disappearance of whites was made up partially by Latinos and Asians.

Anniston, Alabama had separate “black” and “white” high schools until the 1960s. They avoided segregation academies by having whites move to the adjacent city of Oxford. Anniston High school became majority black, and Oxford High remained mostly white. Oxford’s population has now surpassed Anniston’s.

Caroll Academy (Carollton, MS

Nowhere have segregation academies persisted more than in the Mississippi delta. Indianola Academy opened in 1965 and still operates today. Its student population is 96% white (1% black). Nearby Carroll Academy did not have a single black student in 2010. The public schools are over 95%
black. County officials severely restrict funding to public schools. However, due to population decline, enrolment in the segregation academies dropped to levels difficult to sustain. Standardized tests are not required in the segregation academies, and academic performance there may have declined to levels not much better than the public schools. Nevertheless, the Mississippi delta stubbornly refuses to integrate.

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