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Clement-of-Rome-icon-206x300.jpgSaint Clement (000s) was a Christian martyr and one the first popes. He was pope from 88 to 99. That was in the time of emperor Domitian of Rome, who wanted to get rid of the Christians and Jews.

Clement wrote a long letter to the Corinthians, now called “1 Clement”. It was found in some early Christian Bibles. It is one of the earliest Christian writings apart from the New Testament itself. It used to be read in churches. Even today it should be read by anyone who wants to know the history of the popes and their powers.

There is also “2 Clement”, but scholars say it was written in a later time.

Clement was raised in Rome by his father, who believed men’s fates were written in the stars. He gave his son a good education in Greek letters and philosophy. Clement later became a Christian.

When he was a boy his mother and his two older brothers went to Athens but were never heard from again, apparently lost at sea. His father went looking for them. He did not come back either. Then Clement set out to look for them. He met St Peter, who brought him together with not just his father but his mother and two brothers too.

He and Peter became friends. He followed Peter first to Antioch and then to Rome. He brought some of the top people of Rome to Christ. Later he became pope, as the bishop of Rome is called.

Clement refused to offer sacrifice to the emperor, as if he were a god. So he was sent away across the sea of Pontus (the Black Sea) to an island. Thousands of other Christians had already been sent there. They lived there cutting marble out of the earth.

Because the marble was far from any water, the water had to be carried from springs from far away. When Clement heard this he prayed. Then he saw a lamb that no one else could see. He knew was Jesus Christ. The lamb showed him where there was water nearby. Clement struck the ground and out came water.

The Christians on the island rose up against Rome and tore down all the temples and built churches in their place. But then Rome sent a general to put them back under Roman rule.

The general put an anchor round Clement’s neck and threw him into the sea. He died. But the Christians all prayed to see the body of their dead hero. The sea withdrew and showed a temple that was under the waves. In that temple was Clement’s body.

The sea withdrew every year at that time. But then when the people started to turn against God, the miracle stopped too. But the old stories of it lived on. Later they found his body and brought it back to Rome and built the church of St Clement.

Feast day: November 23rd.

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Roman Empire

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The Roman Empire, circa +197.

The Roman Empire (-27 to +476) was the circle of lands round the Mediterranean Sea ruled by Rome. Its ideas about law, government, religion, language and writing became those of the West.

Before -27 Rome was called a republic because the Senate still had some power. But Rome had ruled lands outside of Italy since at least -220. Did it matter to those in Greece or Carthage whether they were ruled by one Roman (the emperor) or many (the Senate)?

And even after Rome fell in 476, the empire in the east continued, ruled from Constantinople, which did not fall to the Turks till 1453. We call it the Byzantine empire, but that is a name made up by French scholars in the 1800s. The empire called itself Roman. Even the Arabs and Turks called them Rumi.

In 117, Rome at its height ruled the lands from Scotland to Egypt, from Morocco to Mesopotamia. It was bound by the Rhine and Danube rivers in the north (except for Dacia, now Romania), the Atlantic Ocean in the west, the Sahara in the south and Persia in the east.

Rome brought peace to all the lands round the Mediterranean Sea for hundreds of years: the Pax Romana or Roman peace.

Rome took the best ideas of Egypt, Babylon and Greece and added ideas of its own about law and government.

Latin was the main language in the west, Greek in the east.

Some of the early emperors were cruel and sick men, like Caligula, Claudius and Nero. They ruled from 37 to 68. Later it was ruled by five good emperors, from 96 to 180: Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius and Marcus Aurelius. They brought Rome to the height of its power and glory in the 100s.

In the 200s war was common: the empire had no peaceful, orderly way to hand power from one emperor to the next.

By the 200s the Christians were seen as a threat to the social order: they did not believe the emperor was a god. They would not even give the idea lip service. But by the 300s most people were Christians. They now became the social order, closing down the old temples and burning old books.

By the 300s the emperor rarely came to Rome. He spent most of his time in Milan and the new city of Constantinople, founded by Constantine. Sometimes the empire was ruled by two emperors, one in the west and one in the east. The last emperor to rule both halves together was Theodosius I from 379 to 395.

In the 400s the army in the west was mainly German defending the empire against other Germans! No surprise, then, when the west soon found itself cut up like a birthday cake among German generals, some of them from the Roman army itself. One of those generals, Odoacer, overthrew the last emperor in the west in 476.

In the 500s Justinian sent Belasarius to take back the west. He took much of Italy – by destroying its cities – but in time even Italy was lost.

– Abagond, 2007, 2016.

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The Roman Republic / Empire from -510 to +530.

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