The 000s (1-99) are also known as the first century after the birth of Christ according to the Gregorian calendar. We now know that Jesus Christ was not born in the year 1, but it was the best anyone knew when they were setting up the calendar 500 years later.
For the first time ever there was an unbroken chain of kingdoms and empires from the Atlantic Ocean in the west to the Pacific Ocean in the east: Rome, Parthia (Zoroastrian), Kushan India (Buddhist) and China, which now reached across the desert north of Tibet. This made the Silk Road possible. Along the road Buddhism came to China.
This was also when Christianity was born. Jesus Christ died on the cross in early 30s. In the 50s and 60s Saint Paul made his teachings into a religion for all mankind and spread it along the roads, towns and ports from Jerusalem to Rome.
The Roman Empire now had all the lands in Europe south of the Danube and Rhine rivers. It took over Britain, something that Julius Caesar could not do, and kept control of Armenia. Cappadocia was still ruled by its own king.
Rome in these years tried to take over Germany but failed. In the battle of the Teutoberg Forest it lost over 15,000 men, a grave loss. That is why Germany never became part of the Roman Empire.
In the late 60s the Jews rose up against the empire. In 70 the Romans destroyed the Temple in Jerusalem, never to be rebuilt. In 73 the last Jewish stronghold fell, the one at Masada where nearly a thousand men, women and children killed themselves rather than live under Roman rule.
Britain also rose up against Rome under Queen Boudicca, who destroyed London. She was put down too. Rome ruled all of Britain as far north as the middle of what is now Scotland.
The Roman emperors in the middle years, like Caligula, Claudius and Nero, were evil and sick men. But starting with Nerva in 96, Rome had five good emperors in a row. The empire would then reach the height of its power and glory.
Tacitus wrote about the years from 68 to 96 in one of the best histories ever written about Rome.
This was also when Pliny was alive and wrote his “Natural History”. It was, in effect, the world’s first encyclopedia. He was curious about everything. In the end this killed him: in 79 he got too close to Mount Vesuvius when it blew its top. It buried him along with the towns of Pompeii and Heraculaneum, preserving them for the ages.
Nearly all the books of the New Testament were written in these years. And the Old Testament as Jews and Protestants know it also took shape.
Christians started making books with pages and covers (a codex), not out of a roll of paper like everyone else.
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